Horn of Africa Crisis situation report 2
28 July 2011
- As of 27 July, an estimated 11.6 million people in the eastern Horn of Africa require urgent humanitarian support; representing an increase of more than 858,000 people since July 15.
- Countries most affected are Somalia, Kenya, Ethiopia and Djibouti. More than 2.34 million children are suffering from malnutrition of which more than 566,000 are severely malnourished and at risk of death.
- On 20 July, the UN declared a famine in two out of eight regions of Southern Somalia, with the rest of the south expected to deteriorate to famine in the coming 1-2 months.
- With over 760,000 refugees among the population in need of assistance, Kenya is hosting almost 65% of the refugees.
- On 21 July, UNICEF declared the Horn of Africa Crisis an organizational Level 3 Emergency.
- UNICEF’s emergency integrated measles campaign targeting an estimated 234,527 children under 5 years in Dadaab camps and neighbouring host communities commenced as scheduled on 25 July.
Situation Overview & Humanitarian Needs
- Poor rains have resulted in recurring droughts throughout the Eastern Horn of Africa affecting Kenya, Somalia, Ethiopia and Djibouti. The impact of the drought on an already vulnerable population is further exacerbated by rising food prices, conflict and access constraints, particularly in the context of Somalia.
- As of 25 July, an estimated 11.6 million people are in need of humanitarian support; an increase from 10,715,870 on 15 July with Somalia accounting for the rise in numbers - Kenya (2,914,545), Somalia (3,700,000) Ethiopia (4,795,270) and Djibouti (164,200).
- Of the 3.7 million people in Somalia in need of aid, 2.8 million are located in Southern Somalia and 1.5 million are children.
- In southern Somalia, the impact of the drought, high food prices and increased civil insecurity have led to severe reduction of food access by poor and very poor households, acute malnutrition, and increased crude mortality.
- On 20 July, the UN declared a famine in two out of the eight southern regions - the highly populated Shabelle and agropastoral areas of Bakol. Some 270,000 people of which more than half are children are facing famine conditions in these two regions. While other areas of southern Somalia remain in Emergency, they are expected to deteriorate to famine in the coming 1-2 months due to limited humanitarian response.
- The drought has created an influx of refugees from Somalia to Kenya and Ethiopia. At present there are 17,600 refugees in Djibouti, 514,545 in Kenya and 228,014 in Ethiopia. Estimates indicate that approximately 3,500 people are arriving each day in Kenya and Ethiopia. Meanwhile, host communities in drought affected areas in north and north eastern Kenya as well as Ethiopia are facing their own humanitarian crisis.
- Across the affected countries, an estimated 2.34 million children are suffering from malnutrition of which 566,185 are severely malnourished and at risk of death.
- Given the porous borders and constant movement the risk of the spread of disease and issues related to separated children is of major concern throughout the sub-region.
- Prevailing food security emergency is expected to persist at least through the coming 3-4 months given the expectation for late and below-average long rains harvests, early depletion of pasture and water from the late April rains
- Particular focus is on separated children in Somalia and separated children associated with armed forces or group.
- The movement of people from Somalia not only increases the vulnerability of children and women but also often exposes them to direct and repeated violence, including sexual violence, separation from their families and direct engagement in conflict. Child protection agencies in the region have recognised the need to address these protection issues using a cross-border approach.
- In order to provide urgent medical care, boys, girls and women survivors of sexual violence need to be identified at border crossings and referred to the nearest health facility.
- UNICEF is working with partners to advocate for the life-saving aspect of education and ensuring children are in school.For example, due mainly to inadequate funding, enrollment rates in refugee camps are very low (32% in Dadaab in Kenya and as low as 18% in Dollo Ado camps in Ethiopia) and decreasing by the day as more refugees arrive in the camps. Dadaab refugee camp is a unique context that combines an emergency new influx with a 20 year old protracted refugee situation where partners with different backgrounds (humanitarian but also development) operate.
- UNICEF is working with regional partners to ensure all involved are taking into consideration the importance of moving beyond the humanitarian assistance approach and look at a more long term development agenda which means revisiting strategies to approach the development oriented donors.
Supply and Logistics:
- UNICEF’s initial consolidated supply plan for the Horn of Africa response totals HKD 195 million (USD 25 million) as of 8 July, including offshore and local procurement. As of 28 July, the off shore purchase orders placed total: HKD 48.4 million (USD 6.2 million). The largest procurement value is for Nutrition.
- UNICEF is initiating Long Term Agreements with local suppliers for the provision of NFI kits, Wash and Education supplies.