World Bank Group, UNICEF urge greater investment in early childhood development


World Bank Group, UNICEF urge greater investment in early childhood development

On 27 August, children hold books and other supplies from their new UNICEF school kits, at the ‘Romashka’ accommodation centre where they now live, on the outskirts of the city of Kharkiv in Kharkiv Oblast Province. The centre provides shelter for people displaced by the country’s continuing conflict. The UNICEF logo is visible on most of the children’s books. UNICEF is distributing school kits (consisting of backpacks filled with basic school supplies) to displaced children in accommodation centres, in preparation for the upcoming school year.

By 13 October 2014 in Ukraine, at least 3,682 people had been killed and 8,871 had been wounded in the country’s continuing conflict. More than 402,000 people have also been internally displaced, and an estimated 5.1 million people are living in conflict-affected areas. Over 427,000 people have also sought refuge in neighbouring countries. The fighting has destroyed or disrupted essential infrastructure and basic services, leaving affected populations vulnerable and in need of urgent support. Ongoing insecurity and a lack of safe access are also hampering the provision of humanitarian aid. Despite the current ceasefire, serious ceasefire violations continue to be reported daily, and shelling has intensified in areas in Donetsk and Luhansk oblasts – two of the five provinces most affected by the conflict. In response to the continuing fighting, UNICEF is supporting health, nutrition, water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH), education, and child protection interventions, including: the provision of vaccines and essential medicines; the distribution of drinking water and ongoing water treatment to provide safe water; the delivery of child and adult hygiene kits, early childhood development (ECD) kits and school kits; and the establishment of child-friendly spaces to provide psychosocial support for children affected by the conflict.

© UNICEF/UNI173183/Zmey

WASHINGTON/ HONG KONG, April 14, 2016 – World Bank Group President Jim Yong Kim and UNICEF Executive Director Anthony Lake today jointly urged global and national leaders to step up and accelerate action and investments in nutrition and early childhood development (ECD) programmes as a critical foundation for equitable development and economic growth.

The two organizations announced the establishment of a new alliance that aims to make ECD a global policy, programming and public spending priority, to give all young children access to quality services that improve their health, nutrition, learning ability and emotional well-being.

Advances in neuroscience and recent economic studies show that early childhood experiences have a profound impact on brain development and on subsequent learning, health, and adult earnings. Children who are poorly nourished and nurtured, or those who do not receive early stimulation, are likely to learn less in school and earn less as adults.

Globally, millions of children under the age of five are at risk of never reaching their full developmental potential. One out of four children under five (159 million) are stunted due to poor nutrition, with numbers significantly higher in parts of Africa and South Asia. Nearly half of all 3 to 6 year olds don’t have access to pre-primary education. In Sub-Saharan Africa, 80 percent are not enrolled in pre-primary programmes.

“The time has come to treat childhood stunting as a development and an economic emergency,” said World Bank Group President Jim Yong Kim. “How will countries compete in what will certainly be a more digitalized global economy in the future if a third or more of their children are stunted? Our failure to make the right investments in early childhood development is condemning millions of children to lives of exclusion. We can’t promise to equalize development outcomes, but we can insist on equalizing opportunity.”

Emerging scientific evidence also shows that prolonged exposure to adversity – such as that experienced by children growing up in countries affected by conflict or households affected by domestic violence – can cause toxic stress, a condition that can also inhibit peak brain development in early childhood.

“What we are learning about all the elements that affect the development of children’s brains – whether their bodies are well nourished, whether their minds are stimulated, whether they are protected from violence – is already changing the way we think about early childhood development. Now it must change the way we act,” said UNICEF Executive Director Anthony Lake.

Through the new alliance, the World Bank Group and UNICEF are inviting governments, development partners, civil society, foundations and the private sector to make early childhood development a global and national development priority. The objective is to support country-led efforts to invest in nutrition, early stimulation and learning, and protection, and to engage with communities to drive demand for these high-quality ECD services for every child.

The benefits of ECD programmes are particularly strong for poor and disadvantaged children. For example, a 20-year study in Jamaica showed that disadvantaged young children who were exposed to high-quality early stimulation interventions as infants and toddlers earned up to 25 percent higher wages as adults – equivalent to adults who grew up in wealthier households.

ECD is also an investment in economic growth. Evidence suggests that an additional dollar invested in quality ECD programmes yields a return of between $6 dollars and $17 dollars.

Recognizing the growing understanding of ECD’s importance, the Sustainable Development Goals include an ECD target – the first time ECD has been explicitly included in global development goals. SDG Target 4.2 aims to increase the percentage of children under 5 years of age who are developmentally on track in health, learning and psychosocial well-being. Although ECD falls under the SDG for education, it provides a natural link to other goals, too — including poverty reduction, health and nutrition, women and girls’ equality, and ending violence.