Horn of Africa Crisis situation report 9

Horn of Africa Crisis situation report 9

15 September 2011

Situation Overview


Kenya hosted a regional summit on the Horn of Africa (HoA) crisis from 8-9 September 2011, concluding to move to the approach of promoting disaster risk reduction and long-term development in drought affected areas. Ways includes to strengthen early warning systems; and address long-term issues of underdevelopment and climate change in drought affected areas of the HoA.



  • According to the latest report by the Food Security and Nutrition Analysis Unit (FSNAU), 4 million people are currently in crisis nationwide, of whom 3 million are in the south of Somalia. Of these, 750,000 people risk death in the next four months if efforts to respond to the famine are not scaled up.
  • To date, six areas in Somalia are in famine, namely Bakool, Bay, Lower Shabelle, Middle Shabelle, the Afgooye corridor IDP settlement, and the Mogadishu IDP community, all of which are in the south.
  • There will likely be an increase in malnutrition and mortality statistics in the next two months in part due to the increased risk of disease that will come with the onset of the Dehr rains.
  • Nearly one million Somalis now live as refugees in the four neighbouring countries and one third of Somalis are currently displaced.
  • Not only is Somalia in need of greater access to food, but also safe water, sanitation, shelter and healthcare. Somalia is facing outbreaks of cholera and acute watery diarrhoea (AWD), malaria, measles and pneumonia, mostly in the south. Waterborne diseases are expected to increase with the onset of rains coupled with congested living conditions. Prevailing high levels of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) and under-5 mortality magnify the risk among the most vulnerable population.
  • In August, 6,754 severely malnourished children were admitted at UNICEF supported Out-patient Therapeutic feeding Programmes (OTPs) and Stabilisation Centres (SCs) and 4,368 children were cured.
  • Through blanket supplementary feeding, about 99,450 people across 81 sites in Lower Shabelle (59), Bay (20), and Bakool (2) have been reached with a monthly food ration, bringing the total number of Households assisted to 32,737 since the inception of the programme.
  • Measles vaccinations were concluded in the 16 districts of Mogadishu and reportedly reached 656,266 children aged 6 months to 15 years with measles, 298,009 children under five with OPV and 654,702 children aged 6 months to 15 years with Vitamin A.


Ethiopia Drought Situation

  • The nutrition situation in the six drought-affected regions is improving overall, although there are still zones within the regions with increased admissions.
  • Despite some sporadic rains in parts of Somali and Oromiya regions, the drought situation continues to deteriorate in Ethiopia’s lowland pastoral areas.

Somali Refugee Situation

  • August witnessed a decrease in the number of Somali refugee arriving in Dollo Ado. As of mid-September, the total number of the Somali refugee population in the four Dollo Ado camps as well as in the transit center stands at 121,279.
  • The mortality rate remained high throughout August, particularly in Kobe camp. During the first week of September, it was reported a significant drop in crude mortality rate from 3.9 per 10,000 per day during the third week of August to 2.0 per 10,000 per day. This is still above the emergency threshold of 1 per 10,000 per day.
  • More than 700 children were vaccinated against polio, 116 households were visited and all children (201) under five were screened. SAM was found in 30% of children; 11 severe cases were referred to the health center and the stabilization center.

Sudanese Refugee Situation

  • An estimated 20,000 refugees have crossed into Ethiopia due to fighting in the Blue Nile Region of Sudan. Most are staying in communities on the border. UNICEF provided 10 water bladders with a capacity of 52,000 litres for different refugee sites. Water trucking to fill the bladders has been arranged with the local authorities. In addition, four Emergency Drug Kits were delivered to the region.


Drought Affected Areas

  • It is predicted there will be near-to-above normal rainfall for parts of coastal, southeastern and central Kenya, with a potential for flooding.
  • Meanwhile, drought continues for 3.75 million Kenyans in the north of the country. Food insecurity is expected to only slightly improve as a result of the upcoming short rains.
  • An estimated 300,000 children and pregnant/breastfeeding women are currently affected by acute malnutrition.

Dadaab Refugee Camps

  • As of 13 September, the overall population in the Dadaab camps stood at 435,427 persons (up from 426,607 last week). The flow of new refugees crossing the border remains at approximately 1,000 individuals per day, with children accounting for approximately 57 per cent.
  • Only 43,000 out of an estimated 156,000 children of school-age attend schools since the beginning of Term 3 last week. There is a huge demand for additional classrooms, supplies, and teachers in the Dadaab camps.
  • The measles outbreak continues with 462 cases reported last week. The increase in cases continues to be amongst new arrivals and people over age 15.
  • On average 22.4% of children in Ifo Camp suffer from Global Acute Malnutrition (GAM) and an average of 6.8% suffer from Severe Actue Malnutrition (SAM); while an average of 17.2% in Hagadera Camp suffer from GAM and 4.6% suffer from SAM.


120,000 people are in urgent need for humanitarian assistance. Of this total, 70,000 are in need of food assistance and 77,000 people, including 17,600 refugees, are in need of safe drinking water.
Major programme results include 70,000 people benefiting from WFP food assistance; 70% of severely malnourished children reached by treatment; 70.6% of affected people were reached by water trucking in highly affected areas.

UNICEF’s response

Child Protection Networks/Committees (CPN/CPC): Community-Based CPN/CPCs are supported by UNICEF to enhance the assets of the community through collaboration and capacity-building to address a range of child protection issues. Since July, all 451 identified vulnerable children identified in the main towns of three drought-affected districts of Kenya received care and protection through community networks.

Unaccompanied Minors and Separated Children: UNICEF is supporting its partners in developing standardized processes for theidentification, documentation, tracing and reunification (IDTR) of UAM/SC. Activities underway involve training in IDTR processes,adapting tools (such as registration forms) to the context, development of a unified IDTR database system to manage large caseloads..

Gender-Based Violence (GBV): UNICEF is focusing on strengthening existing services to ensure that survivors have access to comprehensive care. Key interventions include Safe Houses, as well as blanket distribution of “dignity kits” (including culturally appropriate clothing and hygiene items, as well as safety tools: whistles, flash lights, etc.), as well as provision of fuel-efficient stoves.

Monitoring and Reporting (MRM): UNICEF supports monitoring processes in Somalia and is currently strengthening the existing monitoring and information sharing mechanisms to have more accurate reporting and analysis of trends within countries and across borders.

Children Associated with Armed Forces and Groups (CAAFAG): UNICEF is implementing an operational plan to prevent child recruitment and respond to the needs of children who leave armed groups and forces. Child protection agencies have started identifying these children, placing them in alternative care arrangements, providing them with access to psychosocial counselling, education, and life skills activities.

Psychosocial Services (PSS): By rapid establishment and enhancement of Child Friendly Spaces (CFS), children can access recreational and other positive developmental activities. UNICEF is supporting the training and on-going technical support of staff, as well as provision of materials for the spaces. In Dadaab Refugee camps in Kenya, 15,478 children participated in CFS activities in the past month, over one-third of whom were girls.

Integration of Child Protection throughout the Emergency Response: UNICEF is also working with the WASH, Nutrition and Health and education sections in Somalia and Kenya in integrating child protection approaches and messages in their emergency responses, including an emphasis on GBV.