尋求機會

 

尋求機會

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© UNICEF/UN05325/Dragaj

暴力衝突、貧窮和氣候變化使移民兒童離鄉別井,大部分仍在非洲生活。

每年在西非和中非有1,200萬人遷徙到其他地方,當中超過半數為兒童。約有75%兒童生活在非洲撒哈拉以南,只有不到兩成的兒童正在遷徙到歐洲。人口快速增長、城市化、氣候變化、經濟發展不平衡和衝突持續導致移民的兒童和青少年數量增加。

On 3 March, men on camels and donkeys travel through a dust storm in the desert near the western city of Mao, Kanem Region. From 28 February to 6 March 2010, UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador Mia Farrow visited Chad to raise awareness of the importance of immunizing children against polio. Her visit coincided with the 6 March launch of a national immunization campaign aimed at 2.2 million children under five. It is one of 16 synchronized polio vaccination campaigns that were being launched throughout West Africa on that date. Polio cases in Chad are of particular concern because the country has been a major conduit for the disease’s spread to other countries. Between 2004 and 2006, an outbreak spread from Chad to Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia, Eritrea, Kenya, Saudi Arabia, Yemen and Indonesia. This strain of polio virus originated from Nigeria, one of four countries in the world where the disease is still endemic. A 2007 outbreak, also originating in Nigeria, continues to infect Chadian children, in large part because of poor immunization coverage. Most cases in Chad have occurred in N’Djamena, the capital, where more than half of all children are routinely missed in vaccination campaigns. Ms. Farrow met with government officials, representatives from the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF, and local leaders, and visited polio vaccination teams to support the campaign. She also visited a displacement camp in the eastern town of Goz Beïda and a therapeutic feeding centre in the western city of Mao, and attended the campaign’s launch ceremony in N’Djamena. The synchronized campaigns are supported by the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, which is spearheaded by WHO, Rotary International, the United States' Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and UNICEF. The initiative is also supported by diverse governments, the European Commission, NGOs and other partners.

© UNICEF/UNI82205/Holt

非洲撒哈拉以南嚴重受氣候變化影響。科學家預測,這裡的氣溫將會上升3-4度,高於全球整體預測水平。長期乾旱和強烈暴風雨使農業和畜牧業發展艱難,迫使人們遷徙,尋求更美好的生活。圖為2010年在乍得的沙塵暴。

On 27 October 2016 in Lagos, Nigeria, street vendors sell their wares at Oshodi market as commuters make their way home, creating heavy traffic and fumes. Both vendors and commuters complain of headaches and trouble breathing as they inhale the toxic fumes from car exhaust as they are stuck in traffic or on the streets. Almost one in seven of the world’s children, 300 million, live in areas with toxic levels of outdoor air pollution - six times higher than international guidelines according to a report from UNICEF, Clear the Air for Children, released ahead of COP 22. UNICEF’s findings, the first of its kind and based on satellite imagery, also show that around 2 billion children in total live in areas where outdoor air pollution exceeds limits set by the World Health Organization as being safe for human health. This air pollution is caused by factors such as vehicle and factory emissions, heavy use of fossil fuels, dust and burning of waste. Indoor pollution is commonly caused by use of fuels like coal and wood for cooking and heating. Taken together, outdoor and indoor air pollution are one of the leading dangers facing children -- they are a contributing factor in the deaths of almost 600,000 children under five every year. This figure represents nearly 1 in 10 under-five deaths. Air pollution is also linked with poor health and diseases among millions more children that can severely affect their overall wellbeing and development. It causes difficulty breathing; studies show it is linked with, and can exacerbate asthma, bronchitis, and the inflammation of airways, as well as other underlying health issues. Children who breathe polluted air are at higher risk of potentially severe health problems-- in particular, acute respiratory infections such as pneumonia. Children are more susceptible to the harmful effects of both indoor and outdoor air pollution as their lungs, brains and immune systems are still developing and their respiratory tracks are more

© UNICEF/UN037727/Bindra

城市化是移民潮爆發的主因。高薪厚職-工作不再依賴農作物或雨水,許多人離開家園,紛紛前往城市發展。新思想和新文化是吸引人們遷徙歐洲的第二大主因。圖為2016年尼日利亞熙熙攘攘的大街。

Children gather for a reading club at a primary school in Koro, near Touba, Côte d'Ivoire, Friday 19 February 2016. After years of conflict Côte d’Ivoire is now repositioning itself in Africa with the aim of becoming an emerging economy by 2020. With economic growth estimated at 9 percent, investors are streaming in. Yet nearly 50 percent of the population still lives in poverty. Maternal and child mortality, education, health care and protection of women and children remain key challenges. Significant progress has been made in Côte d'Ivoire since education became compulsory for children aged 6 to 16 in 2015 - the enrolment rate rose from 79% in 2015 to 88% in 2016. However, the number of children out of school remains high, especially in the northern and the western regions of the country. UNICEF is supporting the development of the Education Sector Plan (2016–2026) and also helping the Ministry of Education and partners to identify and address the reasons why children are not in school. One of the challenges Côte d'Ivoire still has to address is gender disparity. When faced with the choice, parents routinely choose to send boys to school before girls, a gap which widens significantly at secondary school level. Girls are also more likely to drop out of school because of early pregnancy and marriage, to care for younger siblings or to undertake other household chores.

© UNICEF/UN016963/Dejongh

預計到2050年,西非和中非的人口會增長一倍。人口大幅增長不僅會耗盡環境資源,還對有限的基礎設施造成壓力,如教育資源和醫療保健,更令資源爭奪更激烈。圖為2016年科特迪瓦學校的閱讀學會。

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© UNICEF Cameroon/2017/Catton

伊麗莎白今年13歲。兩年前,伊麗莎白從中非共和國的衝突中逃脫。她在途中與家人失散,並在寄宿家庭安頓下來,但換來的代價是嫁給一名陌生男人。

她說:「我知道只有教育能幫助我實現夢想。」

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©UNICEF WCARO/2017/Rose

逃離到逸塞內加爾後,12歲的安妮‧瑪麗(化名)與母親和妹妹一起生活在細小房間。在2011年中非共和國的衝突中,房屋被燒毀,她從此變得一無所有。由於多年沒有身份證件,她們無法獲得教育,也沒有足夠食物。

Chris is a nine year old boy who likes to run around in the neighborhoud with his friends. He has had a hard life, his mother is very poor and they live under a plastic tarpoline in a swamp that gets flooded as soon as it rains. Chris normally stays outside late after school. 'I do not like to come home because then I am not allowed to see my friends anymore. And my mother hits me when I do something wrong.' Sandrine Aka Assouan, 40 yars old is the mother of Chris, nine years old. They live together in San Pedro, in the South West of C™te d'Ivoire. Chris is verbally and physically abused by his mother. Sadly, his story is the story of so many others. Sandrine is very poor which stresses her out day and night. Some days she doesn't know if she will be able to feed her son. Her patience is very thin and it is not rare that she hits her son when she is exasperated and he dosen't seem to listen to her. 'I come to a point I don't know how the handle to situation or him, for that matter.' One day social services came with the police and Sandrine was told that she had to stop mistreating her son otherwise he would be brought to a center to protect him. Despite everything, Sandrine says she loves her son very much and didn't want him to be abandoned in a system. Since then, Chris and Sandrine have be able to breath a bit better since then. Sandrine receives some financial support which helps her to cope better and social servics follow Chris closely. In C™te d'Ivoire, 86% of children are disciplined physically and 20% are hit so violently that it leaves permanent marks.

© UNICEF/UN063974/Dejongh

很多弱勢兒童都像九歲的克里斯,他們警示我們移民之路是多麼的艱苦。許多移民遭邊緣化,無法獲得醫療保健和教育資源。克里斯與母親居住在科特迪瓦搭建的帆布下,下雨時洪水氾濫,晴天時蚊蟲漫天。

Mahazouna, 6 years old, daughter of Rahoua Bounya, 30 years old in the village of Kadazaki, Matameye department, Niger on August 14, 2016. Rahoua's husband left her more than 5 years ago to find work in Libya. She has 6 children and 4 still live with her, three boys and a girl. The two older daughters, 15 and 13 years old are already married.“The older girls were not good at school and the teacher was beating them so they dropped out. The brother of my husband decided to marry them because they could not just stay here and do nothing. Now I have less children to feed, it’s better for us”. Rahoua cultivates her husband’s lands and with the harvest, they can eat for 3 to 4 months. But it isn’t enough. “My boys are growing fast and I need money for the future lands they will need to survive on. I heard about women who had been to Algeria to beg who had become rich. I was envious. So I left in July”. I was lucky because I reached Algeria in 4 days. I used all my savings and had to borrow 50,000 franc to reach Tamanrasset.” Rahoua left with her two youngest children and left the others to the surveillance of their uncle. “The desert was scary, I know a lot of people die out there. When I arrived two people from the village were waiting for us and they took us to a house were we stayed. In the morning, we would leave and go begging." Rahoua did not make any money but other women were. "We then went to Gardenia but more than 1000 of us were picked up by the police. They took us back to Arlit. They treated us well. After a night in Arlit we were sent back to Agadez, spent two days at the transit center there and back to Matameye.“I will not go back. I have seen the desert and know that I won’t always be that lucky. The sand wind can kill. If asked, I will talk about the risks and problem you can face so people know what they’re about to do”.

© UNICEF/UN029232/Phelps

瑪哈澤納今年六歲,父親五年前離開尼日爾的村莊,前往利比亞尋找工作。母親則冒着生命危險穿越沙漠,前往阿爾及利亞賺錢,後來卻遭遣返。經濟壓力迫使他的姐姐不得不輟學,提早結婚。

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© UNICEF Gabon/Dicko/2016

圖為來自加蓬的14歲女孩海琳(化名),手舉標語「我是孩子,不是商品」。家人生活在貝寧,迫切想要幫她尋求更好的未來,卻不料受騙,墮入人販子陷阱。海琳說:「我在加蓬從來沒有上學。」「我常常挨打,身體虛弱,從未接受任何醫療幫助,我甚至吃不飽。」

Nigerian refugee Hafsa Oumar, 16, stands outside a classroom at the Dar Naim school, in Daresalam refugee camp, Lake Region, Chad, Thursday 20 April 2017. Before coming to Chad, Hafsa never had a chance to attend school. Hafsa enrolled in school for the first time when she arrived in Chad in 2015. However, she stopped attending school following her marriage in February 2017. More than 25 million children between 6 and 15 years old, or 22 per cent of children in that age group, are missing out on school in conflict zones across 22 countries. In response to the education crisis in Chad, UNICEF has since the start of 2017 provided school supplies to more than 58,000 students, distributed teaching materials to more than 760 teachers, and built 151 classrooms, 101 temporary learning spaces, 52 latrines and 7 sports fields. UNICEF Chad also supported the salaries of 327 teachers for the 2016-2017 school year. To help drive an increased understanding of the challenges children affected and uprooted by conflict face in accessing school, UNICEF advocate Muzoon Almellehan, a 19-year-old Syrian refugee and education activist, travelled to Chad, a country where nearly three times as many girls as boys of primary-age in conflict areas are missing out on education.

© UNICEF/UN060345/Sokhin

尼日利亞難民哈夫賽·奧馬爾今年16歲,站在達累斯薩拉姆難民營學校的教室外。來乍得以前,哈夫賽從未上學。2015年剛來乍得時,她第一次上學,但因結婚,在2017年2月退學。

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© UNICEF WCARO/ 2017/Rose

2017年,在馬里的一個公交車站,站牌上印滿了前往利比亞途經城市清單,令人眼花繚亂。對於那些從未離開過村莊的人來說,在複雜的交通網絡中很難找到正確的路。途中的人販子承諾為他們安排藏身之處,但卻往往食言而廢。

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© UNICEF WCARO/2017/Delvigne-Jean

穆斯塔法在到達利比亞後又返回位於岡比亞的家,他說:「你可以看到人們遭射殺,毆打和折磨。」「到達利比亞以前我從未聽到槍聲。而在那裡幾乎每天日日夜夜都可以聽到。」

穆斯塔法建立了一個組織來幫助返回家園的移民。

Fourteen-year-old Issaa, a migrant from Niger, rests his hand on a gate inside a detention centre, in Libya, Saturday 28 January 2017. Issaa, who has five younger brothers, said his mother died two years ago in Niger. “I left Niger two and a half years ago”, he says sitting on one of the dozens of dirty mattresses on the floor. “My father collected money for my journey, he wished me good luck and then let me go. Once I arrived in Libya I started to look for a job." When Issaa was 12 years old, he began to work on a farm. He worked for less than thirty dollars a month, taking care of the farm and feeding the animals. He managed to set aside US$450, which he hoped would pay for a crossing by boat to Italy. He was arrested and detained before he was able to board a boat. At the time of UNICEF’s visit to the detention centre there were ten women, three children and 51 men being held. Issa was the youngest unaccompanied minor in detention. The men's and women's areas are on the same floor, divided only by a locked gate with a padlock. The women being detained were all arrested in Sirte during a recent military offensive. As such they were being detained “pending interrogation” and were not classified as illegal migrants. Libya is a country in turmoil. Since 2014 security is precarious, living is hard, and violence is commonplace. The country is riven with militias in conflict with each other or Government forces. Thousands of children and women hoping to reach Europe travel from Africa and the Middle East to the sea in Libya. They endure exploitation, abuse, violence and detention. In 2016, 181,000 migrants used the route to reach Italy, 25,800 were unaccompanied children. Children and women making the journey live in the shadows, unprotected, outside the law, and reliant on smugglers. Migrants are easy prey and the average number in detention is 6000-7000, depending on the season. The international community, including UNICEF, only has access to some of t

© UNICEF/UN052682/Romenzi

2017年,14歲的伊薩留在利比亞的一家拘留中心,他說:「我兩年半前離開尼日爾。」「我的父親為我籌錢踏上旅途,他祝我好運,然後讓我離開。」

雖然每月的工作報酬不足港幣234元 (30美元),但在被拘留前,伊薩還會一直存錢買船票,移民到意大利。 」

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© UNICEF Mauritania/2017/Alvarez

四歲的優素福夢想返回幾內亞的家園。父親巴布卡離家前往西班牙,但卻在毛里塔尼亞花光所有錢,不得不當建築工人維持生計。六年後,他放棄前往歐洲的夢想,只想與家人返回家園。

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© UNICEF Central African Republic/2017/Luthi

16歲的希拉已經結婚並為人母,她的丈夫離開馬里前往赤道幾內亞尋找工作。儘管已經很久沒有他的消息,他還是一直在寄錢給家裡。然而,生活依然過得十分艱難,她不僅要做飯,打掃,拾柴,還要在附近的一座金礦工作。

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© UNICEF/UN034820/Schermbrucker

圖為2016年,阿瓦與她的女兒南特妮在馬里生活。為了尋求更好的生活,直至解決貧窮根源問題,並提出解決方案如提供工作機會、醫療保健和平等教育之前,人們將會繼續踏上危險的遷徙之路。