《兒童權利公約》25周年 :世界為兒童變得更美好?

 

《兒童權利公約》25周年 :世界為兒童變得更美好?

Children laugh, sitting in the back of a flat-bed truck in a cane field where their parents are working, near their home village of San Juan del Carmen. The truck is used to take villagers and their children to and from the fields. The children spend most of their day playing, but sometimes help their parents work. Although children in the village no longer have to work in the fields, many help their parents plant cane or clear the fields to supplement the family income.

In June 2011 in Bolivia, legislative reforms and government efforts in health, education and other basic social services are improving the lives of children and families. Nevertheless, over half of the country’s 10.4 million people – more than 40 per cent of whom are children – live in poverty, with 26 per cent living in extreme poverty. An estimated 310,000 children work, sometimes in dangerous conditions, to help support their families. Tens of thousands of children, some as young as six years old, have traditionally worked in the sugar cane harvest and in mining, the two harshest jobs in the country. Children working in the sugar cane harvest also frequently drop out of school. Over the past decade, however, the number of children working in the sugar cane harvest has dropped from 8,000 to less than 1,000 thanks to initiatives providing stable schools and basic infrastructure in communities. For example, the impoverished village of San Juan del Carmen in the eastern department of Santa Cruz, now has permanent schools and teachers. The village is surrounded by cane fields and has no electricity, but residents live in their own homes – instead of in temporary harvesting camps on the lands where they work. And its children attend school, as well as work part-time to help their families. Two of the village’s four schoolhouses have been built with support from the regional government and UNICEF, which has also helped install a well and build a football pitch there. UNICEF and its partners

© UNICEF/UNI116822/Friedman-Rudovsky

 

 

紐約/香港,2014年9月26日-今年11月20日是《兒童權利公約》通過25周年,聯合國兒童基金會就「世界為兒童變得更美好?」這一議題公佈最新數據。

文章摘錄:

兒童權利、均等和我們的未來

聯合國兒童基金會執行主任 安東尼‧雷克

《兒童權利公約》通過25年間,全球各國以至各個地區都紛紛採取行動,並取得顯着成果,協助拯救百萬名兒童的性命及改善他們的生活。然而,每日仍有17,000名5歲以下兒童死亡,當中大多死於可預防的疾病;仍有家長只准兒子上學,迫女兒留在家中;仍有居於偏遠社區的媽媽無法為子女接種疫苗……因此,我們絕不能宣稱兒童權利已得到全面保障。我們肩負重任,尋找新的方法克服困難,幫助還未獲得幫助的兒童,並以平等和兒童權利作為與兒童相關議程的核心。

全球兒童生活是否已改善?通過《兒童權利公約》以來的進展數據分析

《兒童權利公約》通過25周年,取得多項成就,如嬰兒死亡率下降和小學入學率提高。然而,每天仍有數百萬名兒童的權利被剝削──2013年,630萬名5歲以下兒童死亡,大多死於可預防的疾病;小學教育尚未普及,中小學性別平等也未見實現;全球仍有眾多兒童活在極端貧困之中;在最不發達的國家,近1/4兒童淪為童工,童婚,尤其在南亞和撒哈拉以南的非洲地區,仍然常見;出生登記率幾乎沒有提高。《公約》列明的權利,適用於每一名兒童,因此,我們必須幫助最貧困和最脆弱的兒童,縮短不平等的差距,讓世界各地兒童共享成果。

CRC25Report

《兒童權利公約》的誕生和精神

兒童權利委員會主席 基爾斯滕‧桑德伯格

《兒童權利公約》通過25年來,取得顯著成就,但遠遠未能完全實現兒童的權利。最主要的挑戰是要各國履行公約,制定監督、測量和評估機制,實踐對兒童的義務。最新的顯著進展,是通過來文申訴機制的任擇議定書。當兒童的權利受到剝削,用盡方法卻未能解決問題時,便可向兒童權利委員會作出申訴。

© UNICEF/UNI160038/Kiron

對兒童的承諾 早該兌現

海外發展研究所執行主任 凱文‧沃特金斯

《兒童權利公約》改善兒童生活,但這些改變就如標示了「餘額不足」的退票。各國政府有責任恪守《公約》,並有正規的問責制度和政治動員。兒童權利委員會協助注意有違《公約》的政策,提高大眾對弱勢兒童的關注,並在過程中給予民間社會更多參與的機會。若要更有效維護兒童權利,面對侵權人士時必定不能妥協。

實踐《兒童權利公約》意味什麼?

加州大學洛杉磯分校菲爾丁公共衞生學院院長兼特聘教授 喬迪‧海曼、國際政策研究中心高級研究分析師 艾米‧勞布

《兒童權利公約》對全球的影響在於各國的行動。各國的憲法、法律和政策,讓絕大多數國家認識公約在國家層面的承諾,包括:基本權利(健康、教育和適當的生活水平)和基本保護(經濟剝削、早婚、殘疾兒童)。然而,重大的差距依然存在。利用現有的訊息和資訊科技,提供實時資訊給公民、社會和政府領袖等可代表世界兒童的人,作出實際行動,可加快改變的進程。

有關聯合國《兒童權利公約》

《兒童權利公約》列明每一名兒童平等擁有的權利,是史上在最短時間內獲最多政府簽署的國際人權公約。公約啟發各國採取適當的立法及其他措施,改善數百萬名兒童的生活。