流離失所的拉卡兒童從恐懼和壓力中得到短暫喘息

 

流離失所的拉卡兒童從恐懼和壓力中得到短暫喘息

On 4 July 2017 in Ain Issa camp in the Syrian Arab Republic, a displaced boy from Raqqa carries jerrycans to fill with water.  More than 6,600 people live in harsh desert conditions, as violence continues in the area.

Since November 2016, unrelenting violence in the north eastern governorate of Raqqa has displaced over 200,000 people, almost half of whom are children. Intensified attacks have destroyed infrastructure and shattered civilian lives. Families are seeking safety in temporary shelters, with little access to basic services.  In Ain Issa camp, UNICEF has set up six child-friendly spaces for learning and playing and is providing psychological support to more than 400 children to help them cope with the traumas they have faced and to regain a sense of structure and normality.  

In response to the needs of vulnerable families in the area, UNICEF is trucking in water daily to internally displaced people in camps in Raqqa and Hassakeh, including Mabrouka, Al-Hol and Ain Issa. UNICEF has installed latrines, showers and water storage tanks in the camps and is distributing family hygiene kits to protect children against waterborne diseases. Mobile health clinics have been set up to provide primary health care, including vaccinations for children and their mothers. Nutritional supplements are distributed on a regular basis.

© UNICEF/UN070713/Souleiman

流離失所的男孩,手拿着兩個水桶前往艾因伊薩難民營取水。

隨着拉卡戰爭升級,超過20萬人被迫逃離家園,而其中半數是兒童。

為了逃往安全地點,他們長途跋涉,路途艱險,沿途不僅佈滿了地雷,還要躲避炮火和狙擊手。艾因伊薩是他們的目的地之一,距離拉卡前綫50公里。

艾因伊薩難民營位於拉卡省東北部廣闊的荒漠地區,四處塵土飛揚,很難想像還有比這裏的環境更艱苦險惡的地方。這裏高溫炙烤,氣溫高達攝氏45度,漫天風沙,對這裏暫住的近3,000名兒童來說,簡直難以忍受。

兒童經過數周跋涉,飢渴交加,抵達時已經精疲力盡,甚至嚴重脫水。只要你細心觀察他們的面容和舉止,便能感受到他們所經歷的苦難。他們的故事觸動人心。有些兒童和母親細說親眼目睹家人慘遭殺害的場景,還有一些人則時刻擔心自己遠方家人的安危。

被迫長大

On 4 July 2017 in Ain Issa camp in the Syrian Arab Republic, displaced children from Raqqa leave a UNICEF child-friendly space which offers and a wide range of recreational activities. More than 6,600 people live in harsh desert conditions, as violence continues in the area. Since November 2016, unrelenting violence in the north eastern governorate of Raqqa has displaced over 200,000 people, almost half of whom are children. Intensified attacks have destroyed infrastructure and shattered civilian lives. Families are seeking safety in temporary shelters, with little access to basic services. In Ain Issa camp, UNICEF has set up six child-friendly spaces for learning and playing and is providing psychological support to more than 400 children to help them cope with the traumas they have faced and to regain a sense of structure and normality. In response to the needs of vulnerable families in the area, UNICEF is trucking in water daily to internally displaced people in camps in Raqqa and Hassakeh, including Mabrouka, Al-Hol and Ain Issa. UNICEF has installed latrines, showers and water storage tanks in the camps and is distributing family hygiene kits to protect children against waterborne diseases. Mobile health clinics have been set up to provide primary health care, including vaccinations for children and their mothers. Nutritional supplements are distributed on a regular basis.

©UNICEF/UN070718/Souleiman

流離失所的拉卡兒童離開艾因伊薩難民營裡聯合國兒童基金會(UNICEF)支持的「兒童友好家園」。

 

逃離拉卡的危險旅程往往持續數週。一些家庭付錢給人口販運者,由他們帶領沿着安全路線逃離,繞開市區外滿是地雷的公路。

10歲的哈默德回憶一家人的逃生之路,他說:「我們早上五點就出發了。」「我們很害怕,但最終還是到達這裏。」三個星期以前,哈默德與家人抵達艾因伊薩難民營。

他說:「我當時還在上學,卻不得不輟學。」他回憶所遭受的折磨時,眼裏流露恐懼感:「他們安裝攝像鏡頭,無論任何時候,只要有人進入學校,他們就會開槍射擊。」

我在UNICEF帳篷裡接觸的所有兒童,都有相似的可怕經歷,幾乎無一例外。他們在拉卡目睹身邊的朋友死亡、受傷害、與家人骨肉分離時,仍堅持下去,掙扎求存。聆聽他們講述自己經歷的暴力和傷害,可以明顯感受到他們被迫長大。

戰爭破壞了8歲杜瓦的家園,他與家人一同逃離拉卡。途中杜瓦的哥哥與家人失散。杜瓦回憶說:「他們抓走我的哥哥。他的年齡比我大,他們抓走他,我現在都不知道他在哪裡。哥哥很愛我,以前常常一起玩,但現在他卻音訊全無。」

我在營地裏所見到的兒童,眼裏都表現驚慌、恐懼和遲疑。

獲得短暫喘息

哈默德和杜瓦前往艾因伊薩難民營裏UNICEF支持的六個「兒童友好家園」中的其中一個。在營裏,兩名輔導員帶着他們做傳統遊戲、畫畫和唱歌。

杜瓦說:「我們非常喜歡布沙拉老師。」布沙拉老師是其中一名輔導員。她笑着補充說:「居住在拉卡時,我們什麼都不能做。校長總是讓我們穿黑色的衣服。這裏的人很好,他們給我們衣服和玩具。他們給我們任何需要的東西,還教我們如何做各種事情。」

On 4 July 2017 in Ain Issa camp in the Syrian Arab Republic, displaced children from Raqqa attend a UNICEF psychosocial support programme. More than 6,600 people live in harsh desert conditions, as violence continues in the area. Since November 2016, unrelenting violence in the north eastern governorate of Raqqa has displaced over 200,000 people, almost half of whom are children. Intensified attacks have destroyed infrastructure and shattered civilian lives. Families are seeking safety in temporary shelters, with little access to basic services. In Ain Issa camp, UNICEF has set up six child-friendly spaces for learning and playing and is providing psychological support to more than 400 children to help them cope with the traumas they have faced and to regain a sense of structure and normality. In response to the needs of vulnerable families in the area, UNICEF is trucking in water daily to internally displaced people in camps in Raqqa and Hassakeh, including Mabrouka, Al-Hol and Ain Issa. UNICEF has installed latrines, showers and water storage tanks in the camps and is distributing family hygiene kits to protect children against waterborne diseases. Mobile health clinics have been set up to provide primary health care, including vaccinations for children and their mothers. Nutritional supplements are distributed on a regular basis.

©UNICEF/UN070715/Souleiman

在敘利亞的艾因伊薩難民營裡,流離失所的拉卡兒童參加UNICEF社交心理支援計劃。

 

「兒童友好家園」給孩子重拾自己身份的機會。這裏為兒童提供社會心理輔導,幫助他們走出陰霾,並提供娛樂和學習用品,讓他們能夠繼續學習。

儘管在拉卡的經歷不堪回首,我見到所有兒童都渴望上學。教育也是家長優先考慮的問題。有不熟悉這個新建「兒童友好家園」的母親說:「我們需要一個孩子可以玩耍的地方。」「我們還需要學校。」

在艾因伊薩難民營裏,哈默德、杜瓦和許多其他兒童眼睛充滿恐懼與絕望,令我心如刀割。然而,當我聽到他們爽朗的笑聲和聲音,看着他們盡情地玩耍和唱歌時,我同樣能感受到他們的希望與未來。