危機四伏

 

危機四伏

A young school-girl poses for a picture at a state school nearby IDP camps in Myitkyina, Kachin State, Myanmar.

© UNICEF/UN059873/Zar Mon

緬甸藏有地雷和未引爆的彈藥,令兒童每天面臨受傷或死亡的威脅

緬甸14個州與地區中,有9個州的土地受現在和以往戰爭遺留下來的地雷和爆炸物污染。緬甸是全世界地雷意外率最高的國家之一。根據緬甸「地雷風險工作組」的資料顯示,平均三天就有一人因地雷受害,每三名受害者中就有一名是兒童。

Aung Din, 12, displaced from Mung Ding Pa, collects water every morning for his household at the Phan Khar Kone IDP camp in Bhamo city, Kachin State, Myanmar, Wednesday 29 March 2017. Aung Din lives with his grandmother, mother and sister in the camp - his father was killed in a blast, most likely from a landmine while herding cattle, when fighting erupted between Kachin Independence Army (KIA) and the Myanmar Army in 2013. In 2017, working with the Government of Myanmar, UNICEF will strive to meet the basic needs of the most vulnerable internally displaced children. Myanmar is experiencing three protracted humanitarian crises, each with its own set of complex underlying factors. In Rakhine State, inter-communal violence that erupted in 2012 continues to plague 120,000 internally displaced people spread across 40 camps or informal sites, as well as host communities. Eighty per cent of the displaced are women and children. In Kachin State, armed conflict that reignited in 2011 continues to impact communities caught in the crossfire between an ethnic armed group and the Myanmar army. Nearly 87,000 people remain displaced as a result, including 40 per cent who are in areas outside of government control. An additional 11,000 people remain displaced in northern Shan State, where a similar conflict broke out in 2011. Compounding the protracted crises are issues related to religious and/or ethnic discrimination, exploitation, chronic poverty, vulnerability to natural disasters, statelessness, trafficking and humanitarian access. In addition to the humanitarian crises in Rakhine, Kachin and Shan states, Myanmar is impacted by humanitarian situations in other parts of the country, including natural disasters, health emergencies and small-scale displacements.

© UNICEF/UN061783/Brown

於克欽邦八莫市的潘哈爾科內國內流離失所者(Phan Khar Kone IDP)營地,12歲的昂丁正前往洗澡。2013年,克欽獨立軍(KIA)與緬甸軍隊爆發戰爭,昂丁的父親放牧時在爆炸中喪生,很可能踩中地雷被炸死。

Min Thiya, 10, shows a large scar from injuries he sustained two-years ago when he and a group of his friends were playing with unexploded ordnance that killed his friend So Aung Myo Win instantly and injured four others, including Min, at the Ann Ka Law village in Kayin State in Myanmar, Monday 3 April 2017. In 2017, working with the Government of Myanmar, UNICEF will strive to meet the basic needs of the most vulnerable internally displaced children. Myanmar is experiencing three protracted humanitarian crises, each with its own set of complex underlying factors. In Rakhine State, inter-communal violence that erupted in 2012 continues to plague 120,000 internally displaced people spread across 40 camps or informal sites, as well as host communities. Eighty per cent of the displaced are women and children. In Kachin State, armed conflict that reignited in 2011 continues to impact communities caught in the crossfire between an ethnic armed group and the Myanmar army. Nearly 87,000 people remain displaced as a result, including 40 per cent who are in areas outside of government control. An additional 11,000 people remain displaced in northern Shan State, where a similar conflict broke out in 2011. Compounding the protracted crises are issues related to religious and/or ethnic discrimination, exploitation, chronic poverty, vulnerability to natural disasters, statelessness, trafficking and humanitarian access. In addition to the humanitarian crises in Rakhine, Kachin and Shan states, Myanmar is impacted by humanitarian situations in other parts of the country, including natural disasters, health emergencies and small-scale displacements.

© UNICEF/UN061805/Brown

10歲的閩.西亞(Min Thiya)展示身上的大疤痕。兩年前,他和朋友在克倫邦安卡勞(Ann Ka Law)村的樹林玩耍時,發現未爆炸彈藥並留下傷痕。爆炸導致兩名男童死亡及4人受傷,包括他最好的朋友蘇巴孫。

Nan Maw Maw Kyi, a teacher at the local school who was one of the first at the scene when Min Thiya, 10, and his friend Saw Ba Sun, 9, and two others were injured when they were playing with metallic object that exploded and killed their friend So Aung Myo Win, at the Ann Ka Law village in Kyin State in Myanmar, Monday 3 April 2017. “We always tell the children: if you find anything strange or unusual in the forest, never touch it, but go and tell an adult.” says Nan Maw Maw Kyi, but she adds: “Unfortunately we can’t say for certain that something similar won’t happen again.” In 2017, working with the Government of Myanmar, UNICEF will strive to meet the basic needs of the most vulnerable internally displaced children. Myanmar is experiencing three protracted humanitarian crises, each with its own set of complex underlying factors. In Rakhine State, inter-communal violence that erupted in 2012 continues to plague 120,000 internally displaced people spread across 40 camps or informal sites, as well as host communities. Eighty per cent of the displaced are women and children. In Kachin State, armed conflict that reignited in 2011 continues to impact communities caught in the crossfire between an ethnic armed group and the Myanmar army. Nearly 87,000 people remain displaced as a result, including 40 per cent who are in areas outside of government control. An additional 11,000 people remain displaced in northern Shan State, where a similar conflict broke out in 2011. Compounding the protracted crises are issues related to religious and/or ethnic discrimination, exploitation, chronic poverty, vulnerability to natural disasters, statelessness, trafficking and humanitarian access. In addition to the humanitarian crises in Rakhine, Kachin and Shan states, Myanmar is impacted by humanitarian situations in other parts of the country, including natural disasters, health emergencies and small-scale displacements.

© UNICEF/UN061811/Brown

南莫莫基(Nan Maw Maw Kyi)老師說:「我們總是告訴孩子:如果你在森林發現奇怪或不尋常的東西,永遠不要碰它,應告訴成人。」南莫莫基是最先目睹爆炸現場的其中一員,喚醒人們記起那場持續60多年的衝突。

Saw Ba Sun, 9, the son of a pastor at the village church, was injured by unexploded ordnance two-years ago in Ann Ka Law village, Kyin State in Myanmar, Monday 3 April 2017. “It felt heavy – and the metal was hot,” recalled nine year old Saw Ba Sun, of the metallic object he picked up. With a sheepish look, he added: “Somehow, I knew it was dangerous.” As Saw Ba hesitated, another boy, So Aung Myo Win, snatched the metal thing out of his hand. As he raised his throwing arm, the device exploded, killing him instantly and injuring four others, including Saw Ba. More than two years on, memories of the accident are still fresh in this remote, rural corner of south-east Myanmar. Locals point out the unmarked spot, no more than 200 metres from the school, where they found the body of So Aung, and another injured seven year old, Aung Min, who died shortly after reaching the local hospital. When Saw Ba Sun’s father, Tar Leu, heard the explosion, his first thought was that Kayin’s long-running armed conflict had once more descended on the village. His next fearful thought was for his wife and two sons. Mr Leu, 43, is the pastor at the village church. He and his family returned to Myanmar in 2012, after spending years living in a refugee camp across the nearby border with Thailand. “My mother encouraged me to come back here,” said Tar Leu. “We thought it was safe, but it wasn’t.” Time and again, forces of the Myanmar Army and Democratic Karen Buddhist Army (DKBA) sweep through the tiny community of 60 households, which lies in a contested area of Kayin state. Each time, terrified families hide in crude shelters that they have dug under each house. The unexploded grenade that led to the accident was probably left from clashes that had erupted weeks earlier. Conflict has long shaped the lives of people living in this region. Recurrent fighting between government forces and a range of Ethnic Armed Organisations (EAOs) has repeatedly displaced

© UNICEF/UN061802/Brown

9歲的蘇巴孫是閩.西亞最好的朋友,她說:「那個東西好像很沉重,金屬也很熱。不知甚麽原因總覺得這個東西很危險。」蘇巴孫也在爆炸中受傷了。

數周前爆發衝突遺留未爆炸藥,懷疑事故因此發生。

Aung Soe Min, 42, (right) who was injured in 2011 as a Myanmar Armed Forces soldier demining in Kayin State and (left) Daung Ja, 33 who was injured 2010 laying landmines while fighting with the Kachin Independence Army, at newly-opened physical rehabilitation centre in Myitkyina, Kachin State, Myanmar, Friday 31 March 2017. The centre is the first of its kind in norther Myanmar and was opened following an investment of 1.98 billion Myanmar Kyats (1.5 million US dollars) by the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). In 2017, working with the Government of Myanmar, UNICEF will strive to meet the basic needs of the most vulnerable internally displaced children. Myanmar is experiencing three protracted humanitarian crises, each with its own set of complex underlying factors. In Rakhine State, inter-communal violence that erupted in 2012 continues to plague 120,000 internally displaced people spread across 40 camps or informal sites, as well as host communities. Eighty per cent of the displaced are women and children. In Kachin State, armed conflict that reignited in 2011 continues to impact communities caught in the crossfire between an ethnic armed group and the Myanmar army. Nearly 87,000 people remain displaced as a result, including 40 per cent who are in areas outside of government control. An additional 11,000 people remain displaced in northern Shan State, where a similar conflict broke out in 2011. Compounding the protracted crises are issues related to religious and/or ethnic discrimination, exploitation, chronic poverty, vulnerability to natural disasters, statelessness, trafficking and humanitarian access. In addition to the humanitarian crises in Rakhine, Kachin and Shan states, Myanmar is impacted by humanitarian situations in other parts of the country, including natural disasters, health emergencies and small-scale displacements.

© UNICEF/UN061798/Brown

新創立的康復中心位於克欽邦密支。圖右為42歲的昂索閔(Aung Soe Min),坐在他旁邊的是33歲的道加(Daung Ja),裝有新的義肢。閔是政府軍人,在掃雷時受傷。加為克欽獨立軍工作,在鋪設地雷時受傷。

San San Maw, 33, (left) makes repairs to a prosthetic limb belonging to one of the centre’s customers at the Mine Victim Assistance Centre where she volunteers in Kawkareik, Kayin State, Myanmar, Sunday 2 April 2017. San San Maw is one of 30 volunteers working at the Centre. She lost her right leg when she trod on a landmine at the age of 13 while cutting bamboo on a mountain side. “Here we do minor repairs and adjustments for people with prosthetic limbs,” says Ms. Maw. “But my main reason for volunteering is to give other victims encouragement in the same way I needed encouragement after my accident.” According to Landmine Monitor, Myanmar has the third highest number of annual landmine casualties in the world, with an estimated 5 million residents currently living in areas clogged with the hidden weapons. In 2017, working with the Government of Myanmar, UNICEF will strive to meet the basic needs of the most vulnerable internally displaced children. Myanmar is experiencing three protracted humanitarian crises, each with its own set of complex underlying factors. In Rakhine State, inter-communal violence that erupted in 2012 continues to plague 120,000 internally displaced people spread across 40 camps or informal sites, as well as host communities. Eighty per cent of the displaced are women and children. In Kachin State, armed conflict that reignited in 2011 continues to impact communities caught in the crossfire between an ethnic armed group and the Myanmar army. Nearly 87,000 people remain displaced as a result, including 40 per cent who are in areas outside of government control. An additional 11,000 people remain displaced in northern Shan State, where a similar conflict broke out in 2011. Compounding the protracted crises are issues related to religious and/or ethnic discrimination, exploitation, chronic poverty, vulnerability to natural disasters, statelessness, trafficking and humanitarian access. In addition to the humanitarian crises in Rakhi

© UNICEF/UN061798/Brown

33歲的珊珊茉(San San Maw)13歲時因踩到地雷失去了右腿。她目前在克倫邦高克雷由聯合國兒童基金會支助的地雷受害者援助中心當義工,她也在那裡修理義肢。緬甸大約有500萬名人在藏有地雷的地區生活。

Aung Din, 12, displaced from Mung Ding Pa, collects water every morning for his household at the Phan Khar Kone IDP camp in Bhamo city, Kachin State, Myanmar, Wednesday 29 March 2017. Aung Din lives with his grandmother, mother and sister in the camp - his father was killed in a blast, most likely from a landmine while herding cattle, when fighting erupted between Kachin Independence Army (KIA) and the Myanmar Army in 2013. In 2017, working with the Government of Myanmar, UNICEF will strive to meet the basic needs of the most vulnerable internally displaced children. Myanmar is experiencing three protracted humanitarian crises, each with its own set of complex underlying factors. In Rakhine State, inter-communal violence that erupted in 2012 continues to plague 120,000 internally displaced people spread across 40 camps or informal sites, as well as host communities. Eighty per cent of the displaced are women and children. In Kachin State, armed conflict that reignited in 2011 continues to impact communities caught in the crossfire between an ethnic armed group and the Myanmar army. Nearly 87,000 people remain displaced as a result, including 40 per cent who are in areas outside of government control. An additional 11,000 people remain displaced in northern Shan State, where a similar conflict broke out in 2011. Compounding the protracted crises are issues related to religious and/or ethnic discrimination, exploitation, chronic poverty, vulnerability to natural disasters, statelessness, trafficking and humanitarian access. In addition to the humanitarian crises in Rakhine, Kachin and Shan states, Myanmar is impacted by humanitarian situations in other parts of the country, including natural disasters, health emergencies and small-scale displacements.

© UNICEF/UN061857/Brown

緬甸持續的暴力行動繼續影響居住在衝突地區和活動於藏有地雷地區的兒童。如果不再努力實現社會和平和增強社會凝聚力,將會再次出現更多像昂丁一樣的受害者。