「非洲之角」糧食危機一周年 饑荒結束,無數生命得救,但數百萬名婦女及兒童的情況仍然嚴峻

 

「非洲之角」糧食危機一周年 饑荒結束,無數生命得救,但數百萬名婦女及兒童的情況仍然嚴峻

國際消息 00:10

奈洛比/香港,2012年7月20日──一年前的今天,「非洲之角」糧食危機告急,聯合國宣告南索馬里兩個地區進入饑荒狀態。猶幸有各國傾力支持,加上及時降雨紓解旱情,無數生命終得救治,扭轉局勢。然而,「非洲之角」糧食危機至今遠未解除,在索馬里、埃塞俄比亞及肯尼亞,仍有800萬人等待人道援助。當地災民,特別是兒童,目前依然正受著貧窮、糧食不足、營養不良和疾病的威脅。

On 27 July, people collect water during a distribution in a camp for people displaced by the drought, in Mogadishu, the capital. The water is being distributed by troops from AMISOM (the African Union Mission in Somalia) from their base supplies. AMISOM was established by the United Nations to support peace, stability and the safe delivery of humanitarian aid in the country. UNICEF works on all sides of the long-running conflict. By 29 July 2011, the crisis in the Horn of Africa affecting primarily Kenya, Somalia, Ethiopia and Djibouti continues, with a worsening drought, rising food prices and an ongoing conflict in Somalia. More than 12 million people are threatened by the regions worst drought in 60 years. Some 500,000 severely malnourished children in drought-affected areas are at imminent risk of dying, while a further 1.6 million moderately malnourished children and the wider-affected population are at high risk of disease. Somalia faces one of the worlds most severe food security crises; and as many as 100,000 displaced people have sought security and assistance in Mogadishu, the still-embattled capital, in the last two months, and tens of thousands are fleeing into Kenya and Ethiopia. Famine has been declared in the Lower Shabelle and Bakool areas, and it is believed all of Southern Somalia could fall into a state of famine without immediate intervention. Across Southern Somalia, 1.25 million children are in urgent need of life-saving assistance, and 640,000 are acutely malnourished. UNICEF has delivered supplementary feeding supplies for 65,000 children and therapeutic food for 16,000 severely malnourished children in Southern Somalia, and is working with UN, NGO and community partners to expand blanket supplementary feeding programmes where needed. UNICEF is also supporting a range of other interventions, including an immunization campaign targeting 40,000 children in Mogadishu. A joint United Nations appeal for humanitarian assistance for the region requires US$2.5 billion, less than half of which has been committed. On 9 August, a child rests on a cot at a nutrition stabilization centre at the District Hospital in the town of Lodwar, capital of Turkana District, in Rift Valley Province. The global acute malnutrition rate in Turkana District is at 37.4 per cent, its highest ever. In this predominantly pastoralist region, many families are selling their livestock to buy increasingly expensive food. On 26 August 2011, the crisis in the Horn of Africa affecting primarily Kenya, Somalia, Ethiopia and Djibouti continues, with a worsening drought, rising food prices and ongoing conflict in Somalia. Some 12.4 million people are threatened by the regions worst drought in 60 years. Hundreds of thousands of children are at imminent risk of dying, and over a million more are threatened by malnutrition and disease. In Kenya, 1.7 million children have been affected by the drought, including 220,000 Somali refugee children in the north-eastern town of Dadaab. UNICEF, together with the Government, United Nations, NGO and community partners, is supporting a range of interventions and essential services, especially for the displaced and for refugees, including feeding programmes, immunization campaigns, health outreach, and access to safe water and to improve sanitation. A joint United Nations appeal for humanitarian assistance for the region requires US $2.4 billion, of which 58 per cent has been received to date. A majority of UNICEFs portion of the appeal has been funded.

「雖然我們的救援行動幫助了數百萬名兒童及他們的家庭,但許多災民仍處於弱勢,亟待救援。」聯合國兒童基金會(UNICEF)東南非地區主任Elhadj As Sy表示:「直到現在,這場危機仍然是一場兒童的危機。在有需要的地方,我們當然要繼續提供緊急援助,但同時我們亦必須與社區更緊密地合作,提升他們的抗災能力。」

On 3 August, health worker unpacks ready-to-eat therapeutic food at a health centre in Odoleka Village, Oromia Region. The food was supplied by UNICEF to treat malnourished children in the village. In late August 2011, the crisis in the Horn of Africa affecting primarily Kenya, Somalia, Ethiopia and Djibouti continued, with a worsening drought, rising food prices and ongoing conflict in Somalia. The regions worst drought in 60 years has left 12.4 million people in need of assistance, including 4.8 million in Ethiopia. The Government of Ethiopia estimates that 150,000 children under age five will require treatment for severe acute malnutrition, a deadly condition, by the years end. In addition, over 76,000 refugees from Somalia which faces one of the worlds severest food security crises have entered Ethiopia, with a further 200 to 300 arriving every week. Many refugees are dangerously malnourished, and death rates among refugee children have reached alarming levels, according to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). Meanwhile, emergency food reserves are dwindling, and outbreaks of measles have been reported in refugee camps. UNICEF, together with the Government, United Nations, NGO and community partners, is supporting a range of interventions and essential services, especially for the displaced and for refugees, including feeding programmes, immunization campaigns, health outreach, and access to safe water and to improved sanitation. A joint United Nations appeal for humanitarian assistance for the region requires US $2.4 billion, of which 58 per cent has been received to date. A majority of UNICEFs portion of the appeal has been funded. 在各方捐助者的慷慨解囊下,2011年內合共捐出多達港幣31億元(3.96億美元),使UNICEF得以應對當時索馬里、肯尼亞、埃塞俄比亞及吉布提超過1,300萬人的龐大人道需求,同時擴大區內的緊急救援和發展工作規模。在2011年7月至12月期間,約有63,000公噸人道救援物資獲送至災區,其中半數為營養補充及治療食品。迄今,災區近100萬名營養不良兒童經已獲得治療。

為進一步加強災區的抗逆能力,UNICEF已將減災工作納入緊急救援及發展項目之中,同步加強社區的健康、營養、環境衞生和教育等基本服務。另外,UNICEF正和合作伙伴一同推行補助金計劃,強化社會保障,幫助弱勢家庭。

目前索馬里仍是災情最嚴重的國家,國內1/3人口(250萬人)仍正等待緊急援助。在索馬里南部的部份地區,每5名兒童中,便有1名患有急性營養不良,性命危在旦夕。而在肯尼亞和埃塞俄比亞,則分別有220萬和320萬人需要人道主義援助。營養不良至今依然是災區一個嚴重的問題,3個國家合共仍有近90萬名兒童患有營養不良。

 

這場危機令成千上萬的災民被迫離開家園。目前,超過626,000名索馬里難民正暫住在肯尼亞及埃塞俄比亞;在索馬里國內,亦有逾100萬人流離失所,當中近6成是兒童。衝突、局勢不穩、雨量稀少,加上政府不斷限制援助機構入境,令受災的兒童及其家庭仍然身處在危機與威脅之中,更有跡象顯示南索馬里的情況將有可能進一步惡化,例如:在南索馬里的部分地區,5歲以下兒童患上急性營養不良的情況比警戒水平高近1倍。

儘管短期的緊急援助,在解決衞生、營養、食水和環境衞生問題上起到關鍵作用,卻無法防治未來危機。據此,UNICEF這些年來,參考了社區現存的危機應對策略,致力為災區建立長期災難應對措施,提升災區的抗逆能力,幫助最弱勢的群體解決生活所需。

On 5 August, Godana Wario fills her jerrycan with water from a collection tank in the ground, in Melbana Village, Mio District, in the drought-affected Borena Zone. The collection tank has just been filled by a tanker truck delivering emergency water supplies. Water delivery is supported by the Borena Zone Emergency Water Taskforce, of which UNICEF is a member. In late August 2011, the crisis in the Horn of Africa affecting primarily Kenya, Somalia, Ethiopia and Djibouti continued, with a worsening drought, rising food prices and ongoing conflict in Somalia. The regions worst drought in 60 years has left 12.4 million people in need of assistance, including 4.8 million in Ethiopia. The Government of Ethiopia estimates that 150,000 children under age five will require treatment for severe acute malnutrition, a deadly condition, by the years end. In addition, over 76,000 refugees from Somalia which faces one of the worlds severest food security crises have entered Ethiopia, with a further 200 to 300 arriving every week. Many refugees are dangerously malnourished, and death rates among refugee children have reached alarming levels, according to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). Meanwhile, emergency food reserves are dwindling, and outbreaks of measles have been reported in refugee camps. UNICEF, together with the Government, United Nations, NGO and community partners, is supporting a range of interventions and essential services, especially for the displaced and for refugees, including feeding programmes, immunization campaigns, health outreach, and access to safe water and to improved sanitation. A joint United Nations appeal for humanitarian assistance for the region requires US $2.4 billion, of which 58 per cent has been received to date. A majority of UNICEFs portion of the appeal has been funded.

「不少社區已無法透過自己建立的傳統危機應對策略面對災難。」地區主任Sy先生表示:「我們必須尋求新途徑支援社區,提升它們的抗災和復原能力,打破災難的惡性循環,防止危機再現。」他續指:「我們需捍衛得來不易的救援成果,並在兒童身上投放資源,防止類似危機再有發生。」

UNICEF已將2011年就「非洲之角」糧食危機籌得的所有善款,應用於賑災工作上。要救援工作得以延續,我們必需在索馬里、肯尼亞和埃塞俄比亞繼續投放資源,加強區內的抗逆能力。UNICEF在2012年曾就此作出約港幣21.3億元(2.73億美元)的善款呼籲,然而,截至2012年7月12日,籌得善款僅足夠33%的經費所需。

0720_Regional-_Chi