聯合國兒童基金會《兒童上網安全》 現今網絡世界對全球兒童帶來的危與機

 

聯合國兒童基金會《兒童上網安全》 現今網絡世界對全球兒童帶來的危與機

國際消息 00:50

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佛羅倫斯/日內瓦/香港,2011年12月13日——聯合國兒童基金會(UNICEF)旗下的英諾森提研究中心發表新一份研究報告,內容指互聯網為教育和資訊的流通開拓了前所未有的機遇,但同時亦對全球兒童構成了更大的潛在危機。

該份名為《兒童上網安全:全球挑戰與策略》(Child Safety online: Global challenges and strategies)的報告為大眾更深入地分析了青少年及兒童在網絡世界可能會面臨的風險,並提出了保護兒童網絡安全的綱要,以避免兒童遭受網上惡意圖片的傷害、墮入網上色情陷阱和陷入網上欺凌3大網上威脅。

 

「互聯網發展一日千里,雖然未有直接構成兒童性侵犯和剝削等罪行,但兒童在互聯網所能遇到的潛在危機卻不斷擴大。」UNICEF研究辦公室主任戈登.亞歷山(Gordon Alexander)先生表示:「我們必需正視這個網絡危機,在尊重兒童有權利去探索新事物、發掘科技無盡可能的同時,我們亦要盡一切可能採取適當的措施保護他們。」

 

《兒童上網安全:全球挑戰與策略》報告闡述了互聯網對教育、社交及娛樂方面貢獻良多,並強調兒童在互聯網獲取益處的權利必須得到保障。是次研究由本會與英國侵犯兒童與在綫防護中心(Child Exploitation and Online Protection Centre)聯手進行,報告指出保護兒童網絡安全的工作共分4大範疇,包括:提高兒童自我保護能力、加強執法懲治網上不法分子、減少兒童接觸不良資訊,和協助網絡受害者解決困憂。

On 5 July, J8 youth delegates review their work on a laptop computer, at the Citizens' Cultural Centre in the city of Chitose on Hokkaido Island. They are: (left-right) Antoine Marie Oliver Bertrand-Hardy of France, Miho Kikuchi of Japan, Alexander Mario Wegner of Germany, Sergey Kononenko of the Russian Federation, Rose Elizabeth Stuart of the United Kingdom, Marco Zabai of Italy, and Nondumiso Thandeka Nkosi of South Africa. From 2 to 9 July 2008 in Japan, 39 young people from around the world gathered in the city of Chitose on Hokkaido Island for the Junior 8 (J8) Summit, hosted by the Government of Japan and UNICEF. The meeting parallels the annual summit of Heads of State/Government from Group of 8 (G8) countries, also hosted on Hokkaido Island this year. G8 countries are Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. The J8 Summit provides a platform for young people to discuss global issues, advocate for solutions and actions from world leaders and foster a global youth movement around international issues. Participants, aged 13 to 17, are from all of the G8 countries. Young people from seven developing countries, Barbados, Côte dIvoire, Iraq, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Nepal and South Africa, also participated. The meeting focused on three principal G8 topics: climate change and global warming; poverty and development; and global health, particularly child survival and infectious diseases, including HIV/AIDS. On 7 July, J8 delegates, selected by their peers, presented their recommendations to G8 leaders at their meeting venue in the nearby town of Toyako. The recommendations asked that world leaders listen to young people and outlined specific proposals to reduce global warming (including the creation of Green Indexes to evaluate the climate-impact of products produced globally); reduce global poverty (including by supporting child rights and conflict resolution); and increase positive health initiatives worldwide (including education on disease prevention and G8 matching funds for developing country health sectors).兒童比家長和教師更熟悉網絡世界,加上他們比一般成年人更了解自己切身面對的風險,故此加強兒童自我保護能力是提升網絡安全的第一道防綫,亦是解除網上威脅的核心。

事實上,許多兒童都懂得如何為個人電腦裝設防火牆,封鎖惡意網站。而成年人一般不及兒童追趕科技進展的步伐快,加上他們或可能限制兒童的網上自由,所以兒童每當在網絡世界遇到任何疑難,他們往往會第一時間尋求協助的對象,是自己的朋友,而不是成年人。

相對個人電腦,兒童使用手提電話上網的情況就更為普及。加上科技不斷進步,例如寬頻上網速度愈來愈快、視像鏡頭價格愈益便宜等,均為網上不法分子大開方便之門,進一步沖擊兒童的網上的安全問題。

報告亦指出,有效的全球性立法和執法對保護兒童十分網上安全重要。但很多國家,在推行相關法例的進展非常緩慢。即使已制定了有關法例,但卻缺乏協調工作,尤其在「兒童」和色情物品的定義上,各地始終未有劃一標準。就研究檢視的196個國家中,只有45個國家有足夠法律,打擊發放惡意侵害兒童圖片的罪行。雖然,互聯網跨越國界的運作模式,令執法存在一定困難,但各國亦應加強執法力度,共同將不法分子繩之於法。

Childs View A man teaches computer skills to a girl at the Al Qattan Centre for the Child in Gaza City, in the Gaza Strip. The photograph was taken by Hedab Abu-Rass, 18, one of 19 participants in a UNICEF-organized child photography workshop. In August 2009 in the Occupied Palestinian Territory (OPT), UNICEF held photography workshops for children in both the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. The workshops overarching theme was child rights, part of global tributes to the 20th anniversary of the Convention on the Rights of the Child on 20 November of this year. In the Gaza Strip, the workshop was held in Gaza City with 19 young people, aged 12-19, at the Al Qattan Centre for the Child, a local UNICEF-assisted cultural and educational NGO. Guided by UNICEF photographer Giacomo Pirozzi, participants selected their own topics to photograph, including: examples of the local culture and industry; health and leisure activities; activities at the Al Qattan Centre; and the continuing impact of the December 2008-January 2009 Israeli military incursion into Gaza. The conflict killed 1,300 Gazans, including 350 children, and destroyed much of the infrastructure. Rebuilding has been severely constrained by an economic embargo, in effect since 2007, that blocks critical materials from entering the Strip and has left 80 per cent of its refugees dependent on food assistance from the United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA), the largest provider of humanitarian assistance in the territory.單憑立法對提升兒童網絡安全並不足夠。報告同時提出,家長、教師、社工、警察和網絡供應商均有責任協助兒童保護自己。作為網絡供應商的就更加是責無旁貸,他們不僅要密切留意伺服器上的資訊流動,更有責任刪除不良的資訊,攔截或過濾惡意圖片,為用家提供兒童友好的軟件和硬件。

2010年,互聯網監察機構(Internet Watch Foundation)發現,全球一共多達16,700條涉及兒童性虐待內容的圖片在各地網站流傳,並就此採取打擊行動。然而,估計網上仍有數百萬張同類照片,正侵害多達數以十萬計的兒童。受害兒童更有年輕化的趨勢,估計10歲以下受害者多達73%,而且涉及的圖片內容亦愈益露骨及暴力。

報告反映在保護兒童網絡安全存在的艱巨挑戰,並就研究所得的數據作出務實回應。戈登.亞歷山先生續指:「我們可能永遠無法消除所有網上威脅,畢竟互聯網過於龐大,網絡使用者存有高度自主性,同時大量新興網上廣告不斷湧現。然而,倘若我們設法完全監控網絡行為,為兒童提供全面的保障,卻形同抵觸互聯網資訊自由的精神,扼殺網絡世界的發展與創意,甚至會對互聯網所能帶來的各項好處造成破壞。」