聯合國兒童基金會2011年終回顧

 

聯合國兒童基金會2011年終回顧

國際消息 00:43

紐約/香港,2012年1月18日——「非洲之角」陷入饑荒、巴基斯坦水災為患,中東地區爆發動亂,對於發展中國家來說,2011年是充滿挑戰的一年。極端天氣變異、糧食價格高漲和政治衝突導致數百萬人無家可歸、四處流浪,只為尋找一綫生機,讓兒童避過疾病和饑餓的煎熬。面對全球經濟持續低迷,救援需求卻不斷上升,令拯救生命的工作變得更加艱巨,人道救援組織必需以最少的資源,作出最大的援助。

數百萬人等待救援

On 9 July, a woman and several children walk through a dust storm to their tent, in an area for new arrivals in the Dagahaley refugee camp in North Eastern Province, near the Kenya-Somalia border. The camp is among three that comprise the Dadaab camps, located near the town of Dadaab in Garissa District. On 26 August 2011, the crisis in the Horn of Africa affecting primarily Kenya, Somalia, Ethiopia and Djibouti continues, with a worsening drought, rising food prices and ongoing conflict in Somalia. Some 12.4 million people are threatened by the regions worst drought in 60 years. Hundreds of thousands of children are at imminent risk of dying, and over a million more are threatened by malnutrition and disease. In Kenya, 1.7 million children have been affected by the drought, including 220,000 Somali refugee children in the north-eastern town of Dadaab. UNICEF, together with the Government, United Nations, NGO and community partners, is supporting a range of interventions and essential services, especially for the displaced and for refugees, including feeding programmes, immunization campaigns, health outreach, and access to safe water and to improve sanitation. A joint United Nations appeal for humanitarian assistance for the region requires US $2.4 billion, of which 58 per cent has been received to date. A majority of UNICEFs portion of the appeal has been funded.

在肯尼亞西北部達達阿比,您會發現全球最大的難民營。住在這裡的,是成千上萬歷盡艱苦及危機,徒步走難的索馬里災民。

其中一位父親Abdile Mohammed幾經艱苦才來到難民營。而他那只得3歲的兒子Aden,就差點熬不過而死去。「我一路上,歷盡艱辛。」他在到達肯尼亞,兒子終於接受到緊急治療後憶述:「那時我孤身帶著全家,日以繼夜地趕路。」
在世界的另一端,9歲的Saeen Bukhsh經歷了另一場恐懼。在過去兩年,巴基斯坦兩度遭到猛烈洪水的侵襲,全國受災,他的家
On 13 September, a boy pushes a cart along a narrow strip of land between utility poles and expanses of flood water, in the city of Hyderabad, Sindh Province. By 26 September 2011 in Pakistan, over 5.4 million people including 2.7 million children had been affected by monsoon rains and flooding, and this number was expected to rise. In Sindh Province, 824,000 people have been displaced and at least 248 killed. Many government schools have been turned into temporary shelters, and countless water sources have been contaminated. More than 1.8 million people are living in makeshift camps without proper sanitation or access to safe drinking water. Over 70 per cent of standing crops and nearly 14,000 livestock have been destroyed in affected areas, where 80 per cent of the population relies on agriculture for food and income. Affected communities are also threatened by measles, acute watery diarrhoea, hepatitis and other communicable diseases. The crisis comes one year after the countrys 2010 monsoon-related flooding disaster, which covered up to one fifth of the country in flood water and affected more than 18 million people, half of them children. Many families are still recovering from the earlier emergency, which aggravated levels of chronic malnutrition and adversely affected primary school attendance, sanitation access and other child protection issues. In response to this latest crisis, UNICEF is working with Government authorities and United Nations agencies and partners to provide relief. Thus far, UNICEF-supported programmes have immunized over 153,000 children and 14,000 women; provided nutritional screenings and treatments benefiting over 2,000 children; provided daily safe drinking water to 106,700 people; and constructed 400 latrines benefiting 35,000 people. Still, additional nutrition support and safe water and sanitation services are urgently needed. A joint United Nations Rapid Response Plan seeks US$356.7 million to address the needs of affected populations over the next six months. Only US$9 million has been received so far.

鄉法魯恰巴德(Farooqabad)亦都不能倖免,家園毀於一旦。「所有房屋都被淹沒。」他坦言:「我們甚至連墊在地上坐的東西也沒有。」

在中東及北非,數百萬戶家庭受到大規模動亂影響。17歲的Abdul(化名)亦都招攬入伍,參與在利比亞胡姆斯的戰爭。他坦言:「我的兄弟都在胡姆斯衝鋒陷陣,快不行了,所以我亦必須趕上戰場,這是我的義務。」

扭轉劣勢,成績斐然

面對如此惡劣環境,聯合國兒童基金會(UNICEF)與一眾伙伴依然面不懼色,反之更加努力,為最弱勢的社群提供救援。雖然2011年在籌募善款上遇到挑戰,但我們的救援行動依然取得突破性的成果。

數據顯示,5歲以下兒童死亡率錄得進一步下降。與1990年的相比,2010年的5歲以下兒童的死亡率由1200萬多名下降到760萬名。而自2001年推出的麻疹項目,在去年亦取得重大勝利,為60多個發展中國家的10億名兒童成功接種疫苗。此外,加納亦成為了全球第21個杜絕新生兒感染破傷風的國家。

On 10 June, boys dive into the coastal waters of the Mediterranean Sea, in the city of Benghazi. By 15 June 2011, over one million people had fled the conflict between government and rebel forces in the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, and an estimated 243,000 had been displaced within the countrys borders. Intense fighting continues, particularly near the cities of Brega and Misrata and in the Nafusa Mountains. United Nations inter-agency missions to Tripoli, the capital, and to Misrata have confirmed that children are experiencing increased stress and anxiety. Conflict zones are also experiencing medicine shortages; UNICEF has delivered vaccines and other medical supplies to some areas in need. In the eastern city of Benghazi, which is controlled by rebel forces, children and their families exist in an interregnum between peace and war. Many have sought refuge from other parts of the country, and many men of these families are away fighting. UNICEF and partners are assisting the provision of safe water in the city and supporting workshops to raise awareness of the risks to children and others of explosive remnants of war (ERW). Child protection workshops are training volunteers to provide psychosocial support to children. Workshops will be expanded to other parts of the country as access to other areas is restored. Most formal education has been halted since the onset of the crisis. In Benghazi, UNICEF is working to provide recreational and educational activities for children. The mass exodus from Libya including over 550,318 people who have escaped to Tunisia and over 347,900 who have fled to Egypt has also created emergency conditions in neighbouring countries. To address the regional crisis, a joint United Nations flash appeal for US$407 million has been issued; UNICEFs portion of the appeal is US$20 million.

UNICEF在國際政策層面上的工作同樣取得空前成功。計及5個簽署《巴黎承諾》(Paris Commitments)的新成員國,承諾禁止僱用童兵的國家已增至100個。

UNICEF執行主任安東尼‧雷克在雅典簽署了《特殊奧林匹克運動會諒解備忘錄》,維護殘障兒童的權利和尊嚴。他在儀式上表示:「通過加強特殊奧林匹克運動會和聯合國兒童基金會的合作,我們能夠一起保護更多殘障兒童的權利。」

UNICEF在今年亦發表了旗艦刊物《世界兒童狀況報告》,強調全球12億青少年是打破貧窮和發展不均衡兩大跨代問題的關鍵。

一如以往,本會於上年度再度獲得在國際社會上有份量、具影響力、且有善心的知名人士無私支持。國際網球明星莎蓮娜威廉絲(Serena Williams)和祖高域(Novak Djokovic)先後加入了UNICEF親善大使的行列,承諾將盡心盡力協助本會保護兒童權利。此外,莎蓮娜威廉絲、韓國滑冰好手金研兒、曾任童兵的作家伊實美.畢亞(Ishmael Beah)、非洲著名歌手安傑莉克凱蒂霍(Angélique Kidjo),以及美國著名藝人美亞花露(Mia Farrow)等人,就一同響應「非洲之角」糧食危機的賑災工作,他們的呼籲在國際社會一呼百應。

UNICEF駐索馬里辦事處代表賽柯德.可汗(Sikander Khan)表示:「自從7月宣佈當地爆發饑荒後,幸得世界各地的市民踴躍捐輸,令成千上萬兒童的生命得以獲救,我們衷心感謝捐款者的鼎力支持。」

踏入新的一年,聯合國兒童基金會將繼往開來,續以協助最貧困地區兒童為核心工作,同時不遺餘力,推陳出新,為全世界兒童建設更美好的未來。