聯合國《千禧發展目標》報告2011揭示:最脆弱的兒童仍然備受忽略

 

聯合國《千禧發展目標》報告2011揭示:最脆弱的兒童仍然備受忽略

國際消息 00:18

Aqual comforts her six-month-old grandson, whose height is being measured, at a UNICEF-supported malnutrition clinic in the town of Kuajok, capital of Warrap State in Southern Sudan. The boy and his twin sibling are among more than 300 malnourished children currently being treated at the clinic. The children and their grandmother, their sole caretaker, have come to Kuajok from Khartoum, the countrys capital. They are among some 14,700 people who were displaced during the civil war and have returned to the area following the January referendum. The twins, who each weighed only 4.7 kilogrammes when they first arrived in Kuajok, now each weigh 5.3 kilogrammes. From 9 to 16 March 2011, UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador Mia Farrow and UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador (United Kingdom) Martin Bell visited Southern Sudan to raise awareness on issues affecting children and their families at this historic juncture. The visit comes two months after the landmark January 2011 referendum in Southern Sudan, which overwhelmingly endorsed the creation of an independent country for the region. The new nation is slated for creation on 9 July this year. The referendum was part of the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement ending the civil war, which killed two million people, displaced four million, and decimated social services. The situation of children and women in the region remains critical: One of every seven children dies before age five, and one in six Southern Sudanese women dies from pregnancy-related causes. Only an estimated 10 per cent of children are fully vaccinated, and fewer than half of all children have completed five years of primary education. Millions of people continue to be affected by insecurity, including in Western Equatoria State, which borders the Democratic Republic of the Congo. From there, rebels from the Ugandan Lords Resistance Army (LRA) are continuing to attack, abduct and rape villagers on both sides of the border. Additionally, the Abyei area, which straddles disputed territory between northern and southern parts of Sudan, is also experiencing fighting. Ms. Farrow and Mr. Bell visited the Abyei area, where they met with children and women displaced by recent clashes. In Western Equatoria, they visited a transit centre for children rescued from the LRA, primary and maternal health care facilities and a support site for people affected by HIV/AIDS. In Warrap State, they also met with families who had been displaced during the civil war and were returning home. In Juba, capital of Southern Sudan, they met with government officials and representatives from UN, NGO and other partners.

紐約/日內瓦/香港,2011年7月7日——聯合國今天發表《千禧發展目標》報告2011,讚揚各方已朝着目標邁進了一大步。報告亦指出,要各項目標同時取得成功,先決條件是必須所有兒童,不論性別、種族、地理位置和家庭收入,同樣受惠於目標進程。然而,目前世界上最貧困的兒童仍然備受外界忽略,因此要在2015年底前達成所有目標,仍然存在困難。

2009年的5歲兒童死亡數目,已由1990年的1,240萬逐步下降至810萬,不過,生活在最貧困環境的兒童,在改善營養及生存方面的進展依然是大幅落後的。在2009年,在發展中國家,有接近1/4的兒童出現體重過輕的問題,其中最貧困兒童的情況是最為嚴峻的,他們的死亡風險相較來自發展中國家其他富裕家庭的兒童,足以高出2倍。而在推動教育方面,報告指出,部份最貧困的國家已見取得重大進展,以蒲隆地、馬達加斯加、盧旺達、薩摩亞、聖多美與普林希比共和國、多哥和坦桑尼亞等地為例,紛紛都已成功或接近達到基礎教育普及化。不過,兒童能否成功入學,始終多取決於他們的自身狀況。一般而言,家境貧困、女性或居住在受衝突影響地區的兒童,會較大機會失學。根據報告數字,現時全球有2800萬名年屆小學適齡的兒童,仍未入學,約佔總適齡兒童數目42%,而他們都是生活在飽受衝突困擾的貧困國家的。

此外,在1990年至2008年間,全球估計有達11億居住在城鎮的人口和72,300萬居住在偏遠地區的人口能享用淨化過的食水,可見行動亦已取得一大進展。只是報告亦透露,各地的發展進度其實並不一致,各國甚至在國內的不同地區,發展速度仍都差距懸殊。要促進全球均衡發展,勢必加倍努力。

 

A teacher watches as a boy, at the head of a queue of small children, washes his hands with soap and chlorine-treated water at a hand-washing station at Ecole Joyeux Lutins in Port-au-Prince, the capital. A tent classroom is visible behind them. The school, with support from UNICEF, was rebuilt as a semi-permanent structure after the original building was destroyed in the earthquake. Nearly 130 quake-proof, semi-permanent schools (serving more than 30,000 children) have been built in the capital with UNICEF assistance. From 7 to 8 June 2011, international golf star Rory McIlroy, in his first visit as a UNICEF National Ambassador for Ireland, travelled to Haiti to draw attention to the ongoing needs of children and families as a result the devastating January 2010 earthquake, and to view UNICEF-supported programmes. The quake killed 220,000 people and destroyed vital infrastructure; nearly 18 months after the disaster, over 810,000 people remain displaced. The situation is exacerbated by a cholera outbreak that has killed more than 5,000 people and sickened over 291,700. Mr. McIlroy met with quake-affected children and families and visited UNICEF-supported programme sites in and around Port-au-Prince, the capital. He visited a rebuilt school, where he participated in a hygiene education session on the importance of proper hand-washing to prevent the spread of cholera; a health and nutrition clinic providing cholera treatment services in addition to information on proper nutrition and feeding, health check-ups and growth-monitoring; and a child-friendly space providing a safe play environment for nearly 200 children. UNICEF supports more than 1,000 cholera prevention and treatment facilities throughout the country, and is rehabilitating water systems in Port-au-Prince and in vulnerable rural areas and distributing cholera prevention supplies in schools. UNICEF is also helping to build child-friendly, earthquake-proof schools; supporting over 350 child-friendly spaces providing safe play areas for more than 94,000 children daily; and is supporting nutrition screenings and other services for children and nutrition training for paediatric staff. A United Nations consolidated appeal for US $915.3 million, launched November 2010 to provide essential humanitarian assistance in the country, remains largely unfunded: Just 24 per cent of the requested funds have been received to date. UNICEFs portion of the appeal is US $124.8 million. Mr. McIlroy was appointed a UNICEF Ambassador in March of this year. On 4 May, a woman exits a shower stall at the Danane 2 camp for people displaced by the conflict, in Danane, a town in Dix-Huit Montagnes Region. An estimated 800 people continue to live in the camp because of continued insecurity in their home areas. The stalls bear the UNICEF logo. By 5 May 2011 in Côte dIvoire, hundreds of thousands remain displaced by the violence that erupted after the 28 November 2010 presidential election. More than 320,000 people fled the country during the conflict, and many more were displaced within the country. Fighting abated after the 11 April arrest of former president Laurent Gbagbo, allowing international humanitarian operations to resume in many conflict-affected areas, and the security situation continues to improve. Still, lingering instability including reports of increasing sexual violence and harassment by armed men has delayed the return of many refugees and internally displaced people. Many hospitals and health facilities have been unable to operate properly, lacking essential drugs, equipment and staff, and millions lack access to sufficient food and water. On 16 April, for the first time since November, UNICEF was able to airlift 32 metric tonnes of medical, nutritional, educational, water and sanitation supplies into the country, and on 26 April, the Minister of Education ordered schools to reopen. With partners, UNICEF is also providing safe drinking water where needed; distributing fortified biscuits to children and pregnant and lactating women; screening children for malnutrition; conducting a back-to-school campaign aimed at a million children; conducting a polio vaccination campaign targeting 700,000 children; and conducting a measles vaccination campaign targeting 1.5 million children. UNICEF also continues to assist Ivorian refugees in surrounding countries. The Emergency Humanitarian Action Plan for Côte dIvoire and neighbouring countries requires US$160 million, only 20 per cent of which has been funded to date. UNICEFs portion of the appeal is US$17 million.

報告同時指出,先進衞生設備往往與窮鄉僻壤擦身而過,即使一地的整體生活水平獲得改善,貧苦的一群大多未能分享進展成果,例如,1995年至2008年期間,在南亞地區最貧困的4成人口中,提升衞生設施的覆蓋率幾乎毫無突破。而現時逾26億活在最貧窮地區的人口仍然缺乏廁所或其他較先進的衞生設施。

聯合國於20009月召開的千禧年高峰會,首度通過8大國際性的《千禧發展目標》,以期在2015年底前消滅貧窮饑餓、改善健康及教育狀況、促進兩性平等,及確保可持續環境等。

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