7成半兒童及青少年在地中海移民路上被虐待、剝削、販賣

 

7成半兒童及青少年在地中海移民路上被虐待、剝削、販賣

A child walks past mattresses laid on the floor in the women's section of the Al-Nasr detention centre in Zawiya, Libya, Sunday 20 August 2017.

Libya is a country in turmoil. Since 2014, security is precarious, living is hard, and violence is commonplace. The country is riven with militias in conflict with each other or Government forces. Thousands of children and women hoping to reach Europe travel from Africa and the Middle East to the sea in Libya. They endure exploitation, abuse, violence and detention. As of June 2017, the International Organization for Migration identified 390,198 migrants in Libya, 11% of which are women and 7% are minors. Children and women making the journey live in the shadows, unprotected, outside the law, and reliant on smugglers.

An estimated 34 detention centres have been identified in Libya. The Libyan Government Department for Combatting Illegal Migration runs 24 detention centres. They hold between 4,000 and 7,000 detainees. Armed groups hold migrants in an unknown number of unofficial detention centres. The international community, including UNICEF, only has access to some of the Government run detention centres. 

Women interviewed by UNICEF reported harsh conditions with detainees suffering from the intense heat in the summer and cold in the winter. The detention centres are extremely overcrowded with as many as 20 migrants crammed into cells not larger than two square meters for long periods of time. This results in significant adverse health outcomes including the loss of hearing and sight, and extremely challenging psychological challenges. The militia run detention centres are labour camps, farms warehouses and makeshift prisons run by armed groups. The thousands of migrant women and children incarcerated in the militia run detention centres face violence, sexual exploitation, overcrowding, starvation and abuse. Reports by the United Nations Support Mission in Libya, and the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Right

© UNICEF/UN077995/Romenzi

2017年8月20日(星期日),兒童身處利比亞扎維亞的羈留中心。

撒哈拉以南非洲地區兒童比其他群體更容易受歧視。有關歧視和種族主義的報告呼籲歐盟為移民建立「安全和正確的路綫」。

紐約/布魯塞爾/香港,2017年9月12日─聯合國兒童基金會(UNICEF)和國際移民組織表示,嘗試前往歐洲的移民及難民兒童及青少年面臨被侵犯人權風險:77%沿地中海中部路綫行走的兒童及青少年被虐待、剝削、販賣。

《悲慘之旅》報告顯示,雖然所有移民和難民都面對高風險,兒童及青少年比25歲或以上的成年人更容易被剝削和販賣,幾乎是東地中海路綫的兩倍,比中部地中海航綫多13%。

岡比亞一名16歲無人陪伴的兒童艾米莫在意大利庇護所接受採訪時表示,他抵達利比亞後,被人口販賣者逼使完成幾十個月的體力勞動。「如果試圖逃跑,他們會射殺你。如果停止工作,他們會打你。我們像奴隸一樣。一天結束時,他們就把你鎖住。」

移民組織曾訪問約2.2萬名移民和難民,包括約1.1萬名兒童和青少年。

UNICEF區域主任兼歐洲難民及移民危機特別協調員阿夫桑汗說:「經過地中海的兒童被濫用、販賣、毆打、歧視。歐盟領導人應訂立長遠解決方案,包括尋找安全和合法的移民途徑。」

「人們為逃避武力、不穩局勢、貧困而遷徙,踏上危險旅程,有可能付出尊嚴、幸福,甚至生活。」國際移民組織歐盟─挪威和瑞士區域主任安布羅西說。

「只有正確的移民途徑才能有效解決問題。我們重新呼籲建立以人權為基礎的移民方法,改善移民過程中識辨和保護弱小群體的機制。」

報告顯示,雖然所有移民兒童都面臨高風險,但來自撒哈拉以南非洲的兒童比世界其他兒童更有可能被剝削和販賣。撒哈拉以南非洲兒童在地中海中部航綫行走時,被剝削和販運的風險高達83%。種族主義是基本因素。

單獨或長時間行走及擁有較低教育程度的兒童和青少年更容易被販運者和犯罪集團剝削。中部地中海路綫特別危險,大部分移民和難民途經缺乏法治並充斥武裝分子和犯罪行為的利比亞。年青人旅程中的費用介乎港幣7,800元至3.9萬元,經常在抵達歐洲後債務纏身,帶來更多風險。

報告呼籲有關各方,包括移民的來源國、過境國和目的地國、非洲聯盟、歐洲聯盟,及國際和國家組織在捐助團體支持下,採取一系列優先應對措施。

措施包括為移民兒童建立安全和合法的旅行路綫;加強服務,保護移民及難民兒童;除扣留兒童外,尋找其他解決方法;打擊販賣和剝削;反對針對移民和難民的仇外心理、種族主義和歧視。